透明国际印度分部在2005年的一份腐败研究报告中指出,印度的腐败问题存在于影响公民日常需求的公共服务水平(医疗系统、电力、供水和“黑钱”)。其结果是,印度的腐败是由于“过多的监管、法律的执行/监督不力、缺乏惩罚和高度强大的文化模式为腐败创造了机会”。(维托Tanzi: 1998)。虽然印度公众对公共服务(供水、电力和税收“黑钱”)的看法、腐败案件和影响更高,但在哥伦比亚,有组织犯罪和贩毒在该国占近50%的主要地位。另一个容易遭受广泛腐败和CPI得分低的亚洲国家是孟加拉国;最常见的腐败形式是贿赂、滥用职权、裙带关系、徇私舞弊和任人唯亲。同样,哥伦比亚的许多腐败案件与其在国家或地方一级的后果交织在一起。在孟加拉国,回报包括奢侈品礼物、海外旅游酒店、餐厅账单和个人债务,而在哥伦比亚,回报大多是金钱或工作。然而,在政治腐败方面,两国有一个共同的特点,即“利用职务之便给予亲属、朋友和主要支持者不应有的优待和好处是政治的特征。”“尽管如此,在行政腐败方面,在孟加拉国,参与腐败行为的民事官员在大多数情况下不会失去工作。他们很少会因为腐败指控而被撤职。更罕见的是,他们因为滥用公共资金而被送进监狱(可汗,1997年),这在哥伦比亚是相当不同的,在那里,如果被判有罪,他们很有可能会进监狱,尽管判刑可能并不严重;腐败在孟加拉国无处不在,是政治-行政遗产的一部分,不仅公民已经接受它作为他们日常生活的一部分,而且他们觉得自己无力在任何层面解决这一现象.

英国政治essay代写:印度的腐败问题

Transparency International India developed a Corruption Study in 2005 [22] showing that the problem of corruption in India lies at the public service level (health care system, electricity, water supply and “black money”) affecting citizens’ daily needs. As a result, corruption in India is due to the “Excessive regulations, poor implementation/ monitoring of laws, lack of punishment and highly strong cultural patterns create opportunity for corruption”. (Vito Tanzi: 1998). While the perception, cases of corruption and impact in the population regarding public services (water supply, electricity and taxes “black money” are higher in India, in Colombia Organized Crime and drug trafficking plays the main role dominating almost 50% of the country.Another Asian country which has been prone to suffer from widespread corruption and poor CPI score is Bangladesh; the most common forms of corruption are bribes, abuse of authority, nepotism, favouritism, fraud and patronage. Likewise Colombia many cases of corruption are intertwined with their consequences at the national or local level. In Bangladesh payoff include luxury gifts, overseas travel hotels, restaurant bills and personal liabilities while in Colombia payoff are mostly in the form of money or jobs. However in terms of political corruption both countries share the same characteristic “Using position while in power to grant undue favour and benefit to one’s relatives, friends and key supporters is a hallmark of politics.” Nonetheless, in terms of administrative corruption, in Bangladesh civil officers involved in corrupt practices in most cases do not lose their jobs. Very rarely they are dismissed from service on charges pertaining to corruption. Still more rarely they are sent to prison for misusing public funds (Khan, 1997), this is considerably different in Colombia where if found guilty most likely, they will go to prison although the sentence may not be significant; Corruption is all-pervasive in Bangladesh, is a part of the politico-administrative heritage, not only citizens have accepted it as a part of their daily life but also they feel themselves powerless to address the phenomenon at any level

0 条回复

发表评论

发表评论

电子邮件地址不会被公开。 必填项已用*标注