According to the Bronsted Lowry theory. This can be explained in equation 1 and 2. Equation 1 is the reaction that happens when a strong acid and strong base react together. Once all of the hydrogen ions dissociate from the chlorine ions in hydrochloric acid, the base then pulls hydrogen ions from the indicator (shown in Equation 2). Once the indicator has the hydrogen ion taken from it, it changes colour, signifying the endpoint of the reaction between hydrochloric acid and sodium hydroxide. As expressed by the Ostwald theory colour changes our expected. The theory states that colour change is a result of the ionization of an indicator. A commonly employed procedure used to ascertain the concentration of an unknown acid or an unknown base in solution is referred to as titration. Titration is a vital skill to understand. The reason behind this is because it takes place on a daily basis in all different types of environments. Within all aspects of society, titrations are utilized. The main goal of titration to find the unknown concentration of one of the reactants. Acid-base titrations are the slow drop by drop reaction of an acid with a base. The standard base solution is added from a burette to an accurately measured volume, or aliquot, of the acid solution until the equivalence point, or stoichiometric point is reached. Within a titration, the equivalence point is where the amount of titrant added completely neutralizes the solution. In other words, the equivalence point occurs when the mole ratio in the reaction exactly equals the mole ratio required by the stoichiometry of the reaction. At this point, neither the acid nor the base is in excess or is the limiting reagent. Additionally, the pH of the solution depends on the relative strength of the acid and strength of the base used in the titration. A monoprotic acid (HCl) is an acid that donates one proton and therefore has one equivalence point. Whereas polyprotic acids have an equivalence point per removal of the proton. It is crucial to be able to see the equivalence point within a reaction. For this, an acid-base indicator, which changes colour near the equivalence point, is used. Sometimes pH can be measured with an instrumentally (instead of chemically with an indicator). A pH meter is used for this and measures a change in voltage which is caused by the change in H+. At the endpoint, a huge jump in pH/voltage occurs.
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