糖尿病在世界范围内的流行率很高。糖尿病患者总数从1997年的1.24亿人显著增加到2010年的2.21亿人(Meetoo & Allen, 2010)。从全球范围来看,2000年和2030年糖尿病患者人数最多的三个国家分别是印度、中国和美国。受影响最大的群体是45-64岁之间的人群(Meetoo & Allen, 2010)。糖尿病患者的死亡风险是同龄非糖尿病患者的两倍(Rodbard et al, 2007)。如果患者在40岁之前确诊,男性平均预期寿命减少12岁,女性减少19岁(Rodbard et al, 2007)。有许多诊断程序已被用来确定血糖水平。这些策略包括观察糖尿病的症状,如多尿、多饮和体重减轻(Rodbard et al, 2007)。糖尿病患者空腹血糖浓度大于等于126mg/dl或正常状态下血糖浓度大于等于200 mg/dl。这些测量是使用75克口服葡萄糖耐受试验(Rodbard et al, 2007)。对糖尿病等慢性疾病患者进行适当的干预是预防病情不稳定可能导致任何并发症的重要策略(Pimouguet, Goff, Thiebaut, Dartigues & Halmer, 2011)。糖尿病治疗的目的是控制血糖水平,降低长期并发症的风险,帮助糖尿病患者过上正常健康的生活(Meetoo & Allen, 2010)。治疗方法的选择取决于糖尿病的类型。例如,对于1型和部分2型糖尿病患者,胰岛素是维持血糖接近正常水平的合适治疗方法(Meetoo & Allen, 2010)。与2型糖尿病不同,2型糖尿病的管理过程主要基于生活方式的改变。例如,有规律的食物摄入,有规律的锻炼,体重控制和有限的酒精摄入。此外,口服降糖药用于维持正常血糖水平和增强胰腺细胞的作用(Meetoo & Allen, 2010)。此外,最有效的方法之一是必不可少的2型糖尿病患者或高危人群的定期监测血糖水平。这方法有助于防止获取糖尿病风险增加的高血糖的人或那些血糖控制不佳(格兰特,2010)。

英国护理作业代写 糖尿病作业代写

Diabetes mellitus accounts for high epidemic percentage throughout the world. The total number of people with diabetes was significantly increased from 124 million in 1997 to 221 million in 2010 (Meetoo & Allen, 2010). From a global thought, the highest three countries estimated to have the highest number of people with diabetes in 2000 and 2030 are India, China, and the United State of America. The most affected groups are people between 45-64 years old (Meetoo & Allen, 2010). The risk of death for people with diabetes mellitus is twice that among individuals without diabetes of similar age (Rodbard et al, 2007). If patient diagnosed before age 40 years, the average reduction in life expectancy is 12 years for men and 19 years for women (Rodbard et al, 2007). There are a number of diagnostic procedures that have been used to determine the blood glucose level. These strategies include observation the symptoms of diabetes such as polyuria, polydipsia, and weight loss (Rodbard et al, 2007). In addition, diabetic patient could be identified with fasting plasma glucose concentration more than or equal 126mg/dl or plasma glucose concentration more than or equal 200 mg/dl in normal status. These measurements taken by using a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (Rodbard et al, 2007). Applying appropriate intervention for patient with chronic disease like diabetes is an essential strategy to prevent any complications that might result from unstable condition (Pimouguet, Goff, Thiebaut, Dartigues & Halmer, 2011). The aims of diabetes treatment are to control blood glucose level to reduce the risk of long term complications and to help the patient with diabetes to live normal healthy life (Meetoo & Allen, 2010). The choice of treatment depends on the type of diabetes. For instance, patient with type 1 and some cases with type 2, insulin is an appropriate treatment in maintaining nearly normal level of blood glucose (Meetoo & Allen, 2010). Unlike type-2 diabetes, in which management processes are based mainly on life style modifications. For example, regular food intake, regular exercise, weight management and limited alcohol intake. Also, oral anti-diabetic agents are used to maintain normal level of blood glucose and to enhance the action of pancreatic cells (Meetoo & Allen, 2010). Furthermore, one of the most effective methods which are essential for patients with type-2 diabetes or for people who are at high risk is regular monitoring of blood glucose level .This method helps to prevent acquiring diabetes for people who are at increased risk of hyperglycemia or for those who have poor glycemic control (Grant, 2010).

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