例如：What’s the objective of the information? Is it to makepeople more confused and astray? I partly agree with theauthor’s contention that the enormous and otiose information sometimes render people lose their way and fail to consider question penetratingly and originally.
在作文的开头就扔出两个问题，然后接下来的陈述却与问题基本毫无干系。作为读者，首先要考虑那两个问题的答案到底是什么，然后才能往下读。这些在中文里可能会被评作“引人入胜”的好词好句，在英语的论文写作里面，可以说是最大的败笔之一。如果你一定要问问题的话，那就改成陈述句式，例如：Whether this issue is right or wrong? 可以改成：It has been a controversial issue that…..
避免集中使用”Be”动词，包括is, are, has been, have been, etc.
例如：What is the purpose of education? Some people may say that the purpose of education should be to create a totally academic environment that separates from the outside world, for,they think, this situation allows students to focus on their academic research work without beingdisturbed by practical concerns. In fact, this suggestion is harmful to the scientific research work.
这是某一篇文章的开头。作者除了要注意不要使用疑问句以外，还有很重要的一点：总共两三句话，出现4个”Be”动词。这种写法，在英语里面被称作”non-act”的动词。”Be” 仅仅表示一种状态，例如：”i am here”, “you are there”. 对于母语者来说，”Be”动词其实就是写在纸上，而没有任何感情色彩。所以应该尽量避免成篇累牍地使用。我们的例子可以改为：
Some people argue that the purpose of education lies in its strength in creating a totally academic environment separated from the outside world. They think this situation allows students to focuson academic research by excluding outside disturbance from practical concerns. However, this suggestion in fact does harm to the scientific research work.
我们可以看到，使用了lie in, exclude, do harm to以后，句子更有色彩了。
例如：The author argues that to understand one’s own culture, one must know about at leastone another culture which is distinctly different from one’s own culture. While as I am concerned, Ican’t agree with the author’s assertion.
很容易的我们就可以改正：The author argues that the knowledge of another distinctly differentculture helps us to truly understand our own. However, I disagree with this assertion.
例如：Things happened in the past, known as history, is great treasure for us huan beings,through and only through studying the past can we gain valuable experience which serves as ameans of guiding our development of the society.
History consists of the things happened in the past and it is a great treasure to human beings.Through and only through studying the past thoroughly can we gain valuable experience fromhistory. The historical experience serves as a means of guidance for the new development in thesociety.
例如：For getting a satisfying score, students have to prepare for and review their textsfrequently, remember all the knowledge they have learned deep in mind, enlarge their learning if itis possible and so on, especially when examinations are coming. All these efforts, no matter whattheir aims are, will surely lead to a corresponding paying back.
段中的这一句”no matter what their aims are”，在整个上下文表达上面没有任何实质性的意义，完完全全是句废话。
无论是写什么类型的论文，我们都需要引述别人的观点的观点。在英语里有很多引述观点的词，如find，suggest, discover, support, show, indicate, cite, confirm等等，除了他们用于引述不同的内容，意思区别，有很多词还隐含作者本身的观点，甚至有褒贬义，所以用的时候并不是完全通用的，下面就让我们来分别看下吧。
(1)reporting research activities: （引述研究活动）
这类词有discuss, look at, examine, study, investigate, consider (+noun phrase)，一般后面加名次词组，引述的内容一般是别人做了一个什么样的调查。
(2)reporting findings: （引述研究的发现）
这类词有discover, find, suggest, indicate, show (+that…)，后面一般加that引导的宾语从句，引述的内容是别人做了研究以后得出的结论或者发现。
(3)reporting arguments: （引述论点）
这类词有suggest, indicate, argue, point out, claim, note (+that)，右面一般也加that引导的宾语从句，引述的内容是别人的论点。
(1)argue：中文里这个词翻译成“争论”，感觉肯定不是中性的（想一下，面红耳赤，像两只公鸡 ）。但是argue在英文里恰恰就是个非常中性的词，describing somebody’s reporting idea。所以引述别人的论点，比如“某某认为…”“某某的观点是…”，不掺入任何作者的感情色彩。
(3)cite, refer, 和state。Cite和refer后面都要加引用的原文，也就是要用引号引起来的，而state则要paraphrase，也就是转述，但不能用人家原来的语句。
如果你用了现在时或者现在完成时，就跟你扯上关系了，一般来说或多或少表示你赞同这个观点。The research findings may correspond to the writer’s own opinion, the current state of knowledge or the research itself may be close to the writer’s own research.
Avoid ‘we’, because it is often unclear who ‘we’ refers to. You and your marker? You and a co-author? The whole world???
It is also very bad style to refer to yourself as ‘we’—writers sometimes do it when they have problems with their essay and they want to ‘distance; themselves from it, saying in effect, ‘Do not blame me for this result’.
Avoid ‘we must teach like this’ or ‘we should concluded that…’. If you do this, you are making two mistakes. First, you are telling your marker what to think and do (not a good idea) and second, you are limiting your own position. You are saying ‘things are defined and clear cut’, whereas they are often NOT!
Avoid ‘you’. It is too personal and conversational. That the ‘expert talking to learner’ style used in textbooks and handbooks is NOT appropriate in formal writing, since you are still a learner.
You can use ‘I’ at several points, but making certain the sentence refers to something you are, as a student and as the author of the assignment, responsible for. Thus you could put ‘I shall divide the argument into two main sections’ (you could also write ‘the argument is divided into two main sections’). On the other hand, you do not want to write, ‘I have argued elsewhere that adults learn grammar faster than children’, as this makes you sound like a world expert with 30 books published!
Try and avoid ‘I think X is a good idea’. We want you to argue the case WHY X is or is not appropriate, rather than simply assert(=state) that you think it is. This is one of the big differences between conversation and university assignments. In an assignment, you have to make sure you give the evidence for opinions and you need to use impersonal verbs like ‘seem’.
Thus you would write, ‘Smith would seem to be wrong in arguing that…’ or ‘This seems incorrect’, rather than ‘I think Smith is wrong’.
You can use ‘can’ to describe yourself as in this sentence: ‘It is hoped that the essay CAN…’. However, you had better not use ‘can’ as in ‘The teachers can do something…’, which sounds like an order. The same or we say even worse with ‘should’.
If you say ‘the government should…’, it would be a very bad style. You are learners but not policy makers–the only thing you can do is to argume or make suggestion but not ORDER/DEMAND/FORCE. What you can do is to argue convincingly and try your best to persuade others but not force them to believe. Don’t make yourself so important–as you are, in fact, not important! You can try ‘may”had better”might’ more.
(2)Avoid emotional and poetic words
避免诗情画意的用词。在formal writing中，人就是人，没必要说a famous writer，也没必要出现一些过于情绪化的词语。
Avoiding emotive words can be difficult in a foreign language, but it is very important to try. Avoid words like ‘My dream is to answer this question’ or ‘I am starting this fascinating essay with a wonderful, and deeply enriching, tantalizing comment by the highly celebrated and world famous expert R. Smith’. You may personally think that Smith is wonderful and justly famous, but in an academic assignment, PEOPLE ARE JUST PEOPLE! Your argument depends on the content of your points, not on the fame or excitement of the topic, the author or your opinion.
The British use ‘some’ in conversation all the time. BUT it does not have the same effect in writing. There, it appears weak; this makes you look as though you are not in control of your own argument. Try and use more positive expressions, like ‘a number of Ws’, ‘a series of Xs’, ‘several Ys’, ‘a range of Zs’.
(4)Aviod ‘as we all know’ ‘it can not be denied’ ‘there is no denying that…’ ‘everyone knows’… ‘only by doing this, can we…’
Then why most of you keep using this kind of phrases in your essay? Remember, most likely, there is no single standard answer in social science–since people have different understandings towards different phenomena. Also, remember, the one you can represent is YOU yourself, but no one else. So you CAN’T say ‘as we all know’! As I often DON’T know!
(5)Aviod ‘as far as I am concerned’ ‘I think’ ‘in my opinion’
The marker knows clearly that YOU have written this essay–so they know clearly that it is YOUR opinion! So why keep repeating these 废话？记住，写作千万不要凑字数。