Introduction部分写作指南

 

稍微不那么复杂的导语可能只是告诉读者:主题是什么,为什么它很重要,以及写作是如何组织的。在非常短的作业中,作者在开始时简单地说明他们的写作目的是很常见的。需要英国代写可以联系我们的客服哦~

 

1.陈述研究背景,以及本篇论文的研究价值、意义
2.指出该领域存在的问题,争议
3.确定本篇论文聚焦的主题或关键词
4.对该领域之前工作作一个的概览和回顾
5.简要介绍本篇论文的工作和创新点

下面列举一些Introduction中可能经常用到的句式

强调研究主题的重要性:
(显式重要型)
X is fundamental to …
X has a pivotal role in …
X is frequently prescribed for …
X is fast becoming a key instrument in …
X plays a vital role in the metabolism of …
X plays a critical role in the maintenance of …
X is essential for a wide range of technologies.
X can play an important role in addressing the issue of …
There is evidence that X plays a crucial role in xxx …
(隐式重要型)
The issue of X has received considerable critical attention.
The past decade has seen the rapid development of X in many …
X is a common condition which has considerable impact on …
Since it was reported in 2002, X has been attracting a lot of interest.
Recently, a considerable literature has grown up around the theme of …
Evidence suggests that X is among the most important factors for …
In the history of xxx, X has been thought of as a key factor in … Xs are one of the most widely used groups of Y and have been extensively used for …

强调这个领域研究者和相关工作较少(你懂得):
XXX had been a largely under explored domain(under 表否定、下等)
too little work has been devoted to

强调当前研究中存在的困难
One of the main obstacles …
One of the greatest challenges …
A key issue is the safe disposal of …
The main disadvantage of X is that …
X is associated with increased risk of …
It is now well established that X can impair …(impair 损害)
X has led to the declines in the populations of …
X is a growing public xxx concern in xxx.
X is one of the most frequently stated problems with …
The main challenge faced by many experiments is the …
Lack of X has existed as a xxx problem for many years.
X is a major public problem, and the main cause of …
Xs are one of the most rapidly declining groups of insects in …
X is the leading cause of death in xxx.
Despite its long success, X has a number of problems in use.
There is increasing concern that some Xs are being disadvantaged …
There is an urgent need to address the safety problems caused by …
Questions have been raised about the safety of the prolonged use of …
The prevalence of X is increasing at an alarming rate in all age groups.
Despite its safety and efficacy, X suffers from several major drawbacks:
Along with this growth in X, however, there is increasing concern over …
X is increasingly recognised as a serious, worldwide public concern.
X and its consequences are an important, but understudied, cause for concern.

强调研究中存在的困难还可以用如下说法(注意加一些转折副词, however, nevertheless…):
X may cause …
X is limited by …
X suffers from ...
X is too expensive to be used for …
X has accentuated the problem of …
the performance of X is limited by …
X could be a contributing factor to …
the synthesis of X remains a major challenge.
X can be extremely harmful to xxx.
research has consistently shown that X lacks …
a major problem with this kind of application is …
the determination of X is technically challenging.
current methods of X have proven to be unreliable.
these rapid changes are having a serious effect on …
X can be adversely affected under certain conditions.
observations have indicated a serious decline in the population of …

文献概述常用句式:

Recent evidence suggests that …
Previous studies have reported …
Several studies have documented …
Studies of X show the importance of …
Several attempts have been made to …
A number of researchers have reported …
Previous research comparing X and Y has found …
Existing research recognizes the critical role played by …
Recently investigators have examined the effects of X on Y.
Surveys such as that conducted by Smith (1988) showed that …
Factors found to be influencing X have been explored in several studies.
Studies over the past two decades have provided important information on …
A considerable amount of literature has been published on X. These studies …
In the past two decades, a number of researchers have sought to determine …
There have been a number of longitudinal studies involving X that have reported …

It has been + ()型:(小伙伴们最喜欢的It is xxx that句式来了,初中英语必备^_^)
noted that …
argued that …
shown that …
reported that …
assumed that …
suggested that … established that … demonstrated that …. conclusively shown that …

强调研究的价值和意义
This research sheds new light on
This study provides new insights into …
The study offers some important insights into …
The present study fills a gap in the literature by …
Understanding the link between X and Y will help …
The present research explores, for the first time, the effects of …
The findings should make an important contribution to the field of ….
This study provides an exciting opportunity to advance our knowledge of …
This study aims to contribute to this growing area of research by exploring …
Therefore, this study makes a major contribution to research on X by demonstrating

概括本篇论文的结构(一般写在Introduction最后)

The first section of this paper will examine…
My thesis is composed of four themed chapters.
The essay has been organised in the following way.
The remaining part of the paper proceeds as follows: …
The main issues addressed in this paper are: a), b and c).
This paper has been divided into four parts. The first part deals with …
The contributions of this paper can be summarized as follows:(很常见的句式,简单)
The overall structure of the study takes the form of six chapters, including this introductory chapter. Chapter Two begins by laying out the theoretical dimensions of the research, and looks at how … The third chapter is concerned with the methodology used for this study.
The fourth section presents the findings of the research, focusing on the three key themes that … Chapter 6 analyses the results of interviews and focus group discussions undertaken during …

转载:https://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/introducing-work/

小编以为:论文写作中反复强调,表被动!表被动!被动语态用的多是当前论文写作的缺点,不是优点!高大上不是论文的写作目标,目标是有效地传达观点,怎么好读怎么写。

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